Who wrote the books of the Bible and when?

      Book of Isaiah, containing the prophecies of Isaiah son of Amoz, was written around the eighth century (700-681) B.C. by Isaiah the prophet during nearly sixty years of ministry. It accounts for the messages that came to Isaiah through visions during the reign of four of the kings of Judah (Uzziah, Jotham, Ahaz, and Hezekiah), including the fall of Israel to the Assyrians and the Babylonian captivity of Judah. Isaiah also prophesied about the coming of the Messiah, Jesus Christ (Luke 4:17-21). Isaiah was the first known Jewish prophet, a position established during the period of Samuel, the last judge of Israel. Critical scholars attribute the first half of the book to Isaiah (chapters 1-29), but argue that the remainder of prophecies came later through other prophets. The Gospels, however, regard the entire book to be of Isaiah, as evident in references to the prophecies of Isaiah from the second half of the Book of Isaiah in Matthew 3:3, 8:17, 12:17-21, Mark 1:2-3, Luke 3:4-6, John 1:23, and Acts 8:28-34 (even Jesus attributed Isaiah 53:1 to the prophet Isaiah in John 12:38 and the Apostle Paul, a former Pharisee, concurred in Romans 10:16). Isaiah is quoted more times in the New Testament than all the other prophets combined.

      The Book of Isaiah includes:

  • Warning of God's wrath and punishment on a wicked and unrepentive people, as well as his mercy and blessings for repentance (chapter 1)
  • The Day of the Lord (chapter 2)
  • Judgment on Israel and Judah (chapter 3)
  • Song of the vineyard (chapter 5)
  • Woe to those who turn from the Lord to the evils of this world (chapter 5)
  • The Lord's commission of Isaiah (chapter 6)
  • The sign of Immanuel, the virgin birth (chapters 7, 9)
  • The Lord's instrument of vengeance on Israel is Assyria (chapter 8)
  • Anger against Israel and judgment on Assyria (chapters 9, 10)
  • Remnant of Israel (chapter 10)
  • Branch from Jesse and peace among all creatures (chapter 11)
  • Prophecy of Babylon's fall to the Medes (chapter 13)
  • Prophecies and oracles against the enemies of Israel and Judah (chapters 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 23)
  • The Lord's devastation of the earth (chapter 24)
  • Praises to the Lord (chapters 12, 25, 26)
  • Deliverance of Israel and prophecies against Jerusalem (chapters 27, 28, 29, 30)
  • Anger of the Lord against all nations (chapter 34)
  • Assyria's threat to Judah and King Hezekiah's reform (chapters 36, 37)
  • Prophecy of Babylonian captivity (chapter 39)
  • The comfort, helper, servant, and savior of God's people (chapters 40, 41, 42, 43)
  • The ignorance of idol worship (chapter 44)
  • Salvation for Zion (chapters 45, 51, 52)
  • Fall of Babylon and restoration of Israel (chapters 44, 45, 46, 47)
  • Suffering of the Messiah (chapter 53)
  • Salvation to all (chapters 55, 56)
  • Fasting (chapter 58)
  • Confession of sin and redemption (chapter 59)
  • Glory of Zion (chapters 54, 58, 61, 62)
  • God's vengeance, judgment, and salvation (chapters 63, 64, 65, 66)
  • New heaven and earth (chapters 65, 66)

            But he was pierced for our transgressions, he was crushed for our iniquities; the punishment that brought us peace was upon him, and by his wounds we were healed. We all, like sheep, have gone astray, each of us has turned to his own way; and the Lord has laid on him the iniquity of us all. He was oppressed and afflicted, yet he did not open his mouth; he was led like a lamb to the slaughter, and as a sheep before her shearers is silent, so he did not open his mouth. By oppression and judgment he was taken away. And who can speak of his descendants? For he was cut off from the land of the living; for the transgression of my people he was stricken. He was assigned a grave with the wicked, and with the rich in his death, though he had done no violence, nor was any deceit in his mouth. (Isaiah 53 5-9)

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