Which translation of the Bible is more accurate?
Some argue that the Authorized King James Version is not only the most eloquent English translation, but the most accurate as well, while others maintain that either the American Standard Version (a revision of the KJV) or the New American Standard Bible (a revision of the ASV) are the most accurate English translations. It doesn't really matter. There are plenty of adequate Bible versions available -- all accurate enough -- the most important of which will be the one you read. Once you become comfortable reading the Bible, no doubt you will acquire alternative versions for cross-referencing verses and comparing each translation to help come to a better understanding of the meaning of the text. If comparing translations based on the original languages of the books of the Bible (Hebrew, Aramaic, and Greek), it is important to consider not only the original meanings of the individual words, but the meanings of the phrases as well. Since the original sources of the books of the Bible are unavailable, most Bibles use the oldest copies that are available, often favoring the Hebrew Old Testament and Greek New Testament manuscripts. The most important consideration regarding a Bible version is whether or not it will be read.
"When he takes the throne of his kingdom, he is to write for himself on a scroll a copy of this law, taken from that of the priests, who are Levites. It is to be with him, and he is to read it all the days of his life so that he may learn to revere the LORD his God and follow carefully all the words of this law and these decrees and not consider himself better than his brothers and turn from the law to the right or to the left. Then he and his descendants will reign a long time over his kingdom in Israel."
The following list is of more popular English translations of the complete Bible (Old and New Testaments), listed by date of publication. To assist with understanding the original sources of these translations, a few definitions are necessary. There are basically two philosophies of English translation, formal correspondence and dynamic equivalance. Dynamic Equivalent translation attempts to reproduce in the English the same understanding of meaning and degree of impact and challenge of the original Hebrew and Greek, accomplished through a thought-for-thought, meaning-for-meaning, translation style. Formal equavalance consists of varying levels of literal translation, such as verbatim (word-for-word), literal (original word order with some flexibility), and loose (idiomatic and/or interpretive). Literal translations are more often used as biblical study aids due to their precision and consistency in how words are rendered. Dynamic translations, often paraphrased, are more common for ordinary reading.
The primary sources of biblical translation come from various Hebrew, Aramaic, and Greek copies. The Masorah (Hebrew masar, to hand down, or mesor, "traditional"), are the Hebrew Old Testament manuscripts based on the original language and form of the Old Testament, which were safeguarded by the Jewish scribes known as the Masoretes and are generally considered the most reliable copies. The earliest Masoretic texts date back to the seventh century C.E., which post-date the Septuagint (Latin septuaginta, "seventy"), also known as LXX, which is one of the earliest Greek translations of the Old Testament, traditionally believed to have been the commission of King Ptolemy II of Egypt sometime between 300-200 B.C., whereby seventy-two Palestinian Jewish scribes translated the Hebrew Old Testament into Greek in seventy days. The Septuagint is considered by most to not be as reliable as the Masoretic texts, but are often used as a comparison. The Targums (Aramaic targum, "translation") were translations of the Old Testament (by a torgeman, or translator) from Hebrew into Aramaic, the common language of the Middle East and vernacular of post-biblical Judaism in the early centuries B.C. and A.D. The Targums were often paraphrases of the Old Testament written side-by-side with the Hebrew text.
The Peshitta (Syriac peshitto, plain or simple) is a Syrian Bible of questionable origin, but believed to have been composed by Christians some time between the second and fifth centuries A.D. Most likely translated from Greek, it was the primary source of biblical scripture in Syria after the fifth century. To date, over 350 Peshitta New Testament manuscripts have been discovered.
The Vulgate (Latin volgatus, common or ordinary, Medieval Latin volgata, "popular"), is a Latin version of the Bible commissioned by Pope Damasus and prepared by St. Jerome in the fourth century A.D., which served as the authorized version for the Roman Catholic Church. The Old Testament was translated from Hebrew and Aramaic and the Gospels from the best available Greek manuscripts of the time. Until the sixteenth century Protestant Reformation, Latin was the only language used to translate the Bible in the Roman Catholic Church.
Some Old Testament and many New Testament translations are based on the traditionally copied manuscripts of Greek churches, known as the Traditional Text, first compiled and published as a Greek New Testament (Novum Testamentum Graece) in 1516 by Desiderius Erasmus of Rotterdam, a Roman Catholic humanist, and later referred to in a 1633 Elzevir edition as the Received Text, or Textus Receptus. Other editions followed and continue to be published based on over 5,000 copies of available Greek manuscripts, some more reliable or less reliable than others, and to date about 30 different versions of the Textus Receptus New Testament exist, each generally identified by the name of the person who published it (such as Stephens, Beza, Scrivener, Elzevir, and Erasmus to name a few of the older and more prominent editions).
Many of the newer Old Testament translations were based on the Biblia Hebraica, or Hebrew Bible composed by Rudolph Kittel in 1906 and revised in 1912, which itself was based on one of the most reliable Hebrew translations known as the Ben Chayyim Masoretic Text by Rabbi Abraham Ben Chayyim in 1524. There have been further revisions and releases of the Biblia Hebraica under various names, including the popular 1966 Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia by German rationalists.
The Dead Sea Scrolls are a collection of Old Testament manuscripts discovered in 1947 in a cave near Qumran on the Dead Sea, attributed to a sect of Jewish priests known as the Essenes. Although not a primary source of biblical translation, they serve as a source of comparison for the other biblical sources because they are the earliest manuscripts available, dating between 100 B.C. and A.D. 70.
King James Version (KJV), also known as the "Authorized King James Version," was the collaborative effort of about fifty scholars and a committee of twelve revisionists between 1605-1609 and was first published in 1611 (printed by Robert Barker). It was not a new translation, but a revision of the Bishop's Bible of 1568 with comparisons to the original Hebrew and Greek (Masoretic text for the Old Testament and Received Text for the New Testament) and various translations adapted from earlier Protestant Bibles, predominantly William Tyndale's Bible and the Geneva Bible. The goal of the translators was to make one principal tranlsation out many good ones. It also originally included the 14 books of the Apocrypha, which were later removed sometime during the 1880's. Composed in the King's English for the Anglican Church and presented to King James I of England (although never officially authorized by him), it was written primarily for the common people and has been the standard English translation for nearly 400 years. Well known for the quality of literal translation and the majesty of style, to date it remains to many fundamentalist Protestants as the most accurate English translation of the Bible (although it was not originally a Protestant Bible), along with being the most printed book in history. There have been many publishers, many editions, and various features for this version. It has also served as the basis for several modern, popular revisions, including the Revised Version and the New American Standard Version. The first English Bible printed in America was the King James Version by Robert Aitken in 1782. The first large, quality family Bible was a KJV printed in America in 1791 by Isaac Collins. All King James Version Bibles printed in the U.S. have been based on the revised 1769 John Baskerville spelling and wording of the original 1611 version.
English Revised Version (ERV), or "Holy Bible, Revised Version," originally published in 1885 by the Cambridge University Press, is the first and only officially authorized revision of the King James Version. It was begun in 1879 by about fifty scholars from various denominations in Britain, with various American scholars by corrrespondence. More than 30,000 changes were made in the New Testament, over five thousand of them on the basis of a better Greek text. The addition of the Apocrypha was released in 1895. Based on this Revised Version, the American Standard Edition was published in 1901.
American Standard Version (ASV), also known as the Revised American Standard Version, is a revision of the King James Version by the American Revision Committee between 1881-1885, and released in 1901. A joint effort of American and English scholars, the American revisions were originally included as an appendex, later to be edited into the body. Since the copyright on this version has expired, it is in the public domain and may be freely used and copied.
Douay-Rheims Bible (DRB) was published with the imprimatur of James Cardinal Gibbons in 1899 by the John Murphy Company as an English translation of Jerome's Latin Vulgate Bible, which had been the official Bible translation of the Catholic Church since the fifth century. Those who developed this version translated the Latin into English as closely as possible, even if certain passages seemed unintelligible. They believed the Latin to be more pure, uncorrupted, and accurate than the Hebrew and Greek texts. As the first English Bible sanctioned by the Catholic Church, reference sources included the Protestant Wycliffe Bible, Coverdale Bible, Bishop's Bible, and the Geneva Bible. The New Testament was published in 1582 by the English College at Rheims, France, and the Old Testament was published in 1609-10 by the English College at Douay, France. Most modern translations come from a revised version by Bishop Richard Challoner in 1749-52. The Douay-Rheims Version also includes the Apocryphal books of Manasses, Abdias, Iude, and the third and fourth Books of Esdras.
Revised Standard Version (RSV), first published in 1952 by the Division of Christian Education of the National Council of the Churches of Christ in the USA, was the authorized revision of the American Standard Version of 1901, itself a variant of the English Revised Version of 1885, both a revision of the King James Version. Thirty-two scholars overseen by fifty reviewers attempted to maintain the eloquent prose of the King James Version in a more modern English translation, while updating scripture based on modern scholarship and new discoveries of ancient biblical manuscripts. There is also a Revised Standard Version, Catholic Edition by Ignatius Press, also known as the Ignatius Bible, with minor variations in the New Testament from the original RSV.
The Jerusalem Bible (TJB), based on the original French version La Bible de J�salem prepared by the Dominican Biblical School in Jerusalem in 1956, was released by Doubleday in 1966, and is used primarily by Catholics. It adopted an easy format consisting of single column pages, bold-type section headings, and an introduction to each book of the Old and New Testaments and the Apocrypha.
Living Bible (LB) is a paraphrased version of the Bible first published by Tyndale House Publishers in 1971. It is a restatement of the scripture verses in simpler, more modern terms so that it may be better understood by the current English speaking reader. Paraphrased translations often depend on the translator's own understanding of the scripture being translated. The Living Bible is actually a compilation of previous paraphrases by Tyndale Publishing: Living Letters (1962), Living Prophecies (1965), Living Gospels (1966), Living Psalms and Proverbs (1967), Living Lessons of Life and Love (1968), Living Books of Moses (1969), and Living History of Israel (1970).
New American Standard Version (NASV), also known as the New American Standard Bible (NASB), was first published by the Lockman Foundation in 1977. It was begun in 1959 as a revision of the American Standard Version of 1901, itself the counterpart of the English Revised Version, a modern revision of the Kings James Version. The primary purpose was to adhere to the original languages of the Scriptures (Hebrew and Greek), and secondly to make the translation in a fluent and readable style according to current English usage. Additional resources used included the latest edition of Biblia Hebraica, more modern lexicography, cognate languages, the Dead Sea Scrolls, and the twenty-third edition of Novum Testamentum Graece. Footnotes were added for clarification and Old English terms were retained for divine references (thou, thee, and thy). Although some consider it to be somewhat difficult to read due to its direct, literal English translation (verbatim), it is considered by the majority of evangelical scholars, theologians, professors, and students to be the most accurate English Bible. (http://www.gospelcom.net/lockman/)
New International Version (NIV), first published in 1978 by the International Bible Society, was a new translation of the Bible from scratch. The intent was a contemporary English translation, maintaining the literary quality and accuracy of the most reliable biblical texts, which included the latest Biblia Hebraica, Juxta Hebraica, Dead Sea Scrolls, Samaritan Pentateuch, Septuagint, Vulgate, Syriac Peshitta, Targums, Greek New Testament manuscripts, and ancient scribal traditions, among others. Following several years of exploratory study by committees from the Christian Reformed Church and the National Association of Evangelicals, the development was undertaken by over 100 translators and scholars from around the world, representing different Christian denominations. Each book was revised by an Intermediate Editorial Committee, then revised again by a General Editorial Committee, and finally reviewed, revised, and released by the Committee on Bible Translation. Footnotes were included, along with theme titles, and poetic passages were printed as poetry. The NIV is a dynamic equivalent translation directed at phrase-for-phrase accuracy (rather than literal word-for-word, such as the NASV), utilizing conversational English. Several modern study Bibles have been based on the NIV. A revised version, Today's New International Version, is expected to be completed by 2005. (http://www.gospelcom.net/ibs/)
New Jerusalem Bible (NJB) was published in 1985 by Darton, Longman, and Todd, Ltd. and DoubleDay, with the imprimatur of Cardinal George Basil Hume. Although not necessarily a revision of the Jerusalem Bible of 1966, it was translated by many of the scholars who originally contributed to the Jerusalem Bible and its French versions. This dynamic equivalence translation was based on Hebrew, Aramaic, and Greek manuscripts of the Scriptures, along with the Septuagint and Masoretic texts. Italics indicate passages in the Old Testament found only in the Septuagint and quotations from other books of the Bible found in the New Testament. A gap indicates an unintelligible word or an incomplete sentence in the original. Brackets in the Old Testament indicate an addition or an explanation that is later than the original text. There is generally an introduction and outline at the beginning of each book.
New American Bible (NAB) was begun by the Catholic Bible Association of America in 1944 in order to produce a completely new and accurate literal translation of the Bible from its original languages. Completed in 1970 and used primarily in Catholic church services, it was revised in 1986 due to advances in biblical scholarship and finally published in 1987 by the Catholic Press, a division of Thomas Nelson.
Amplified Bible (AB), published in 1965 by Zondervan Publishing House, was based on the American Standard Version and compiled by a committee of Hebrew and Greek scholars. As a loosely literal translation, it uses a system of synonyms, punctuation, typographical features, and clarifying words or phrases to reveal shades of meaning of the key words in the original text. It was published in parts between 1958-1964, with the complete Bible released in 1965.
Today's English Version (TEV), also known as the "Good News Bible," was published in 1976 by United Bible Societies. Its purpose as a new translation was to interpret accurately the meaning the of original texts, while at the same time using the modern English language in order to be easily understood. Certain features as hours of the day and measures are given in modern equivalents. The basic text used for the Old Testament was the Masoretic text in the third edition of Biblica Hebraica. Other ancient versions (Greek, Syraic, Latin) were also used at times. The basic text used for the New Testament was the Greek New Testament, along with other Greek manuscripts. Final approval of the text came from the American Bible Society's Board of Managers upon recommendation of its Translations Department Committee.
New King James Version (NKJV) was first published in 1982 by Thomas Nelson Publishing. It was an attempt to simply modernize the Old, Elizabethan English of the Authorized King James Version, however, due to copyright infringement laws, they were forced to make further changes. It then became the combined effort of various committees, translators, and editors with the additional intent of revising the Authorized King James Version based on Hebrew, Aramaic, and Greek texts. Additional sources used in the NKJV included the 1967/1977 Stuttgart edition of Biblia Hebraica, the 1524/1525 Bomberg edition of Biblia Hebraica, the Septuagint, Latin Vulgate, and Dead Sea Scrolls. Words representing ancient objects which have no modern substitutes were retained, as were the KJV spelling of untranslated words. The New King James Version has never seriously been considered a modernization of the original KJV, but more of a marketing ploy.
New Revised Standard Version (NRSV) was published in 1989 by Thomas Nelson Publishing and is the authorized revision of the Revised Standard Version of 1952. It was compiled by a team of about thirty Protestant, Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, and Jewish members due to new discoveries of Semitic manuscripts, including the Dead Sea Scrolls and various Greek New Testament texts. The 1977 edition of Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia was used for the Old Testament and the 1966 edition of The Greek New Testament was used for the New Testament. It is a literal translation with a few paraphrased verses, along with gender-neutral references for previous masculine ones where possible.
21st Century King James Version (KJ21) was first published in 1994 by Deuel Enterprises, Inc. and is neither a new translation nor a revision, but an updating of the King James Version of 1611 with a modern English vernacular, along with updated spelling, capitalization, punctuation, and paragraphing. It is not meant as a modern translation, much like those with simplifications and commonalities of expression, but an effort to update the text of the King James Version by the elimination of obsolete and archaic words (much like the New King James Version attempted to do). Its publishers claim that, "Unlike all other modern Bibles, it alone retains the power, beauty, and poetic language of the glorious King James Version... The message of the Word of God contained in the King James Version has been altered in many modern Bibles to accommodate to the ever-changing findings of historians, translators, and social scientists. We have steadfastly resisted any attempt to subject the Word of God to the vagaries of any current state of knowledge, culture, or political whim. In this connection, no attempt has been made to revise King James language to conform to recent secular trends -- gender-neutral language, for example -- and other ephemeral forms of social correctness." (http://www.kj21.com/)
New Living Translation (NLT) was published in 1996 by Tyndale House Publishers after seven years of development by about 90 evangelical scholars (about three assigned to each book). This is a dynamic-equivalence translation, where entire thoughts, rather than just words, were translated into natural, everyday English. Where possible, gender-neutral renderings where substituted for human beings or to the human condition.
Third Mellenium Bible (TMB) New Authorized Version (NAV) was first published in 1998 by Deuel Enterprises, Inc. and comprises all the books contained in the 1611 Authorized King James Version including the Old Testament, the New Testament, and the Apocrypha (Deuterocanonical Books), placed in the same order as in the original. All are carefully updated and presented in a modern, easy-to-read Biblical English format. (http://www.tmbible.com/)
New Millenium Bible (NMB) was written by George Wallace and published in 1999 by Wallace Publishing. It is a contemporary English rendition of the Bible providing a brief introduction for each book, with chapters arranged in paragraph form without verse numbers.
English Standard Version (ESV) was published in 2002 in an effort to combine the readability of the New International Version and the accuracy of the New American Standard Version.
The Message (full title is The Message: The Bible in Contemporary Language) by Eugene H. Peterson, was published in 2002 by Navpress and is intended to be a paraphrased reading Bible rather than a study Bible. Each book has an introduction and, for easy reading, each chapter is written in paragraph form with no verse numbers. (http://www.navpress.com/)
World English Bible (WEB) is a Public Domain (no copyright) Modern English translation of the Holy Bible, based on the American Standard Version of the Holy Bible first published in 1901, the Biblia Hebraica Stutgartensa Old Testament, and the Greek Majority Text New Testament. It is in draft form, and currently being edited for accuracy and readability. The New Testament, Psalms, and Proverbs are close to how they will read when they are finished, but most of the Old Testament still contains some archaic grammar that will be revised. (http://www.ebible.org/)
"Go now, write it on a tablet for them, inscribe it on a scroll, that for the days to come it may be an everlasting witness. These are rebellious people, deceitful children, children unwilling to listen to the LORD's instruction. They say to the seers, 'See no more visions!'
and to the prophets, 'Give us no more visions of what is right! Tell us pleasant things, prophesy illusions. Leave this way, get off this path, and stop confronting us with the Holy One of Israel!' "
The following are some of the earliest English translations, all pre-dating the King James Version of 1611. Most were banned by the Catholic Church, which held that the Latin versions were the only official translations to be used soley by the clergy. Publication of the Bible into other languages was undertaken primarily by Protestant organizations during the Reformation. Most of these also contained the 14 books of the Apocrypha.
The Wycliffe Translation (TWT), released in 1380 (before the invention of the printing press), was the first English Bible published (possibly by Samuel Bagster and Sons). It was translated from the Latin Vulgate and is attributed to John Wycliffe, an English scholar and Catholic rector whose religious views and opposition to the teachings of the organized Church were considered heretical. The initial translation of the Latin Vulgate into the English vernacular for common use was not widely accepted because the Latin version had been sanctioned for use only by the clergy since the fifth century.
William Tyndale Translation, (WTT) although not a complete Bible, was in 1525-26 the first English version of the New Testament to be printed. An English scholar and theologian, William Tyndale translated the Pentateuch (first five books of the Old Testament), Book of Jonah, and the New Testament between 1525-1531, and was likely aided by Martin Luther since his work had to be done in Germany. It is believed that he translated most of the Matthew's Bible of 1537 and that his translations were the literary basis for the King James Bible of 1611 and the Revised Standard Version of 1885. He was considered a heretic by both the Roman Catholic Church and the Anglican Church, his translations were burned, and he was put to death under King Henry VIII in 1536.
The Coverdale Bible (TCB) was published in 1535 by Miles Coverdale, an ordained catholic priest who assisted William Tyndale with his version beginning in 1529, and was the first complete Bible to be printed in the English language. It includes the old and New Testaments along with the Apocrypha and is translated from German and Latin into Modern English. The primary manuscript sources include the scriptural translations of Jerome, Pagninus, Martin Luther, William Tyndale, and the Zurich Bible. It is divided into six parts, with the chapters divided into paragraphs without systemmatic numbering, and there are over one hundred and fifty illustrations.
Matthew's Bible, also known as the Matthew-Tyndale Bible, was printed in 1537 by John Rogers as the second complete English Bible. Rogers used the assumed name Thomas Matthew, also used by William Tyndale, whose translations were the primary source for this version. Rogers was later burned at the stake during the reign of Queen Mary.
Great Bible, also known as Cranmer's Bible, was published by Miles Coverdale in 1539, who was hired by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Thomas Cranmer, at the bequest of King Henry VIII (three years after the martyrdom of William Tyndale). It was the first English Bible authorized for public use (by the new Church of England). During the reign of Queen Mary, Cranmer was burned at the stake as a Protestant heretic.
The Geneva Bible (TGB), published in 1560, was originally compiled in Geneva, Switzerland, by a group of Protestant reformers including William Whittingham, Miles Coverdale, John Knox, Christopher Goodman, Anthony Gilby, Thomas Sampson, and William Cole. Its text was predominantly the translations of William Tyndale. The purpose was to better enable Christians to fear and love God by providing them with the Bible in their own language in order to improve their knowledge of God. It was the first Bible to contain numbered verses for easier reference. Because of its extensive marginal notes and thorough references, it is also considered to be the first English study Bible. It was the first Bible brought to America by the Pilgrims and Puritans. Due to a passage in Genesis where Adam and Eve's clothing were described as breeches (britches), this version has also been called the Breeches Bible. It was last printed in 1644.
Bishop's Bible, first published in 1568, was a revision of the Geneva Bible in an attempt by the Anglican Church to tone down the harsh language of the marginal notes against the Roman Catholic Church by its Protestant writers. Nineteen editions were published between 1568 and 1606, although it could never compete with the Geneva Bible. It was this version, however, which was used as the basis for the King James Bible of 1611.
"My son, keep my words and store up my commands within you. Keep my commands and you will live; guard my teachings as the apple of your eye. Bind them on your fingers; write them on the tablet of your heart. Say to wisdom, 'You are my sister,' and call understanding your kinsman; they will keep you from the adulteress, from the wayward wife with her seductive words."
The following are English translations popular in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, listed by initial date of publication, most of which were developed due to newer discoveries of early Greek and Hebrew scriptural texts, improved understandings of the Hebrew language, and the need for more modern translations.
English Version of the Polyglott Bible (EVPB) is an early pocket-size edition of the King James Version, published in 1858 by Brown, Taggard, and Chase. There is no evidence of what the other languages or versions of the original Polyglott Bible are.
Young's Literal Translation, Revised Edition (YLR), published in 1898 by Baker Book House, was intended as an auxiliary to the King James Version. The purpose of this version was to create a literal translation which retained the God-breathed inspiration and meaning of the original text, without sacrificing it for readability in English. The Greek text used for the New Testament was the Received Text.
The Holy Bible in Modern English (HBME) was translated by Ferrar Fenton and published in 1900 by S. W. Partridge and Company. The Old Testament is translated from Hebrew and Chaldee and arranged in four volumes according to the guidelines of the Editorial Committee of the Sanhedrin in Jerusalem in the third century B.C. He also attempted to avoid supposed mistakes made by earlier Greek and Latin translators.
Moffat New Translation (MNT) was written by a doctor of divinity, James Moffat, and published in 1922 by the George H. Doran Company. Moffat's intent was to show the Bible as an English transcript of the original Massoretic texts, many of which were considered corrupt or physically damaged. This was done by ommitting missing text and substituting three dots where modern translation could not provide adequate conjecture. The text used for the New Testament was that of H. von Soden.
Darby Holy Bible (DHB) was written by J. N. Darby and published by G. Morrish in 1923. It was designed to provide the uneducated reader with an exact translation of the Bible and was originally composed in French, German, and English. Various changes have since been made regarding clarity, inaccuracies, and uniformity, but very little with the original translations.
Modern Reader's Bible (MRB), based on the Revised Version Bible and edited by Richard G. Moulton, a professor of literary theory and interpretation at the University of Chicago, was published in 1923 by the Macmillan Company. It includes the Apocrypha and attempts to recapture the verse and prose of the original authors' literal style.
The Shorter Bible (SBK), published in 1925 by Charles Scribner's Sons, was the collective effort of five people, including Charles Foster Kent. Published in two volumes, The New Testament in 1918 and the Old Testament in 1925, the purpose this translation was to condense the Bible to interest the busy modern reader. This was done by merging similar passages and ommitting duplications. It also grouped the books of the Old Testament into Stories and Histories, Laws, The Prophets, The Lyrics, and The Teachings of the Wise. In the New Testament, they were grouped as Matthew, Mark and Luke, The Teachings of Jesus, The Acts of the Apostles, Paul's Letters, Later Writings, and The Gospel of John.
The Bible Designed to be Read as Literature (BDRL) was arranged and edited by Ernest Sutherland Bates and published in 1930 by William Heinemann. It is based on the King James Version and the Revised Version, combining the Apocrypha with the Old and New Testamanets by order of their believed dates of composition. It was primarily written as a narration of biblical history, with less emphasis on scriptural matter.
An American Translation (Smith-Goodspeed) (SGAT), was undertaken by a group of five scholars, including J.M. Powis Smith, the editor, and Edgar J. Goodspeed, who translated the New Testament, and published in 1931 by the University of Chicago Press. It was felt at the time that it was necessary to develop a translation based on improvements in the science of textual criticism and a better control of the Hebrew vocabulary and syntax than the King James Version, along with a clearer representation of Hebrew poetry and more available early texts and current lexical studies. Also, since the New Testament texts were originally written in everyday Greek, it was translated into everyday English.
The Basic Bible (TBB), was released in 1950 by the University of London and the Orthological Institute as a basic English version translated from Hebrew and Greek manuscripts using only 850 words from the English language.
Confraternity of Christian Doctrine Translation (CCDT) was published by the J. C. Wilfert Company in 1953. Genesis to Ruth was translated by members of the Catholic Biblical Association of America with the remainder of the Old Testament adapted from the Douay-Rheims Version, the Book of Psalms was translated from the Latin version approved by Pope Pius XII, and the New Testament is the revised version of the Confraternity of Christian Doctrine.
Knox Translation (KTC) by Ronald Knox was published in 1956 by Sheed and Ward. Commissioned by the hierarchy of England and Wales in 1936 to create a completely new translation, Knox finished a New Testament in 1945 and an Old Testament in 1955, both translated from the Latin Vulgate. It also includes the Apocrypha. Designed to meet the need of having a Bible in every home, and with a style all its own, it was spread worldwide throughout the Catholic community.
Lamsa Bible of the Peshitta (LBP), a loosely literal translation by George M. Lamsa and based on the Peshitta (Syriac, "sincere" or "original") manuscripts of the Syriac Bible, was published in 1957 by the A. J. Holman Company. Lamsa was of Assyrian descent, whose people continued to practice the traditions of biblical Semitic culture, many of whom believed that the Gospels and many other letters of the New Testament were originally written in Aramaic. The Codex Ambrosianus was the manuscript used for the Old Testament and the Mortimer-McCawley manuscript was used for the New Testament. Unlike the Peshitta New Testament, however, the Lamsa Bible does not include the Apocrypha.
The Emphasized Bible (EBR), by Joseph B. Rotherham, was published in 1959 by Kregel Publications and was an attempt at capturing in English the exact meanings, proper terminology, and graphic style of the original Hebrew and Greek. Various signs are used throughout for emphasis and stress in the original words and phrases. The Old Testament was based on the Massoretic text and the New Testament was based on the translations of Westcott and Hort.
The Dartmouth Bible (TDB) was an abridgement of the King James Version, edited by Roy B. Chamberlin and Herman Feldman with the counsel of an advisory board of Biblical scholars, and published in 1961 by Houghton Mifflin. It was the outcome of research on a study group that determined the reasons why people fail to read the Bible (such as its overwhelming length, somber format, eye-straining type, confused sequences, repetitiveness, drabness of content, puzzling terms and allusions, and lack of historical knowledge of the reader). The result was a translation roughly half the size of the King James Bible. Some of the following changes were made: Ruth, Esther, and Jonah were grouped together due to their apparent similarity; the sayings in the Book of Proverbs were classified according to subject; the four Gospels were combined; repetitious and technical passages were ommitted; 1 and 2 Chronicles was ommitted; Isaiah was divided into two books; 2 and 3 John was ommitted; nine Apocryphal books were retained.
New Berkley Version in Modern English (NBV) was published in 1969 by Zondervan Publishing House. Dr. Gerrit Verkuyl edited the New Testament in 1945 and the Old Testament in 1959. Not meant as a paraphrase, its original intent was to create a plain and literal updated rendition of the original languages of the Scriptures. It was extensively revised before being published, with the addition of explanatory notes and topical headings.
The Bible Reader (TBR) was developed by a team of four individuals of various faiths, including Catholic, Protestant, and Jewish, and published in 1969 by Bruce Publishing Company and Geoffrey Chapman Ltd. Its goal was to create an interfaith interpretation of the Bible for modern times.
New Life Version (NLV) was composed by Gleason and Kathryn Ledyard while working in the Canadian Arctic with Eskimos who were learning English. It was published in 1969 by Christian Literature International and became useful to many others learning English as a second language. The vocabulary in this literally translated version is limited, with difficult biblical words and phrases broken down into simpler ones.
The Abbreviated Bible (TAB) was compiled by James Leslie McCary and Mark McElhaney, two graduate philosophy students from the University of Houston, and published in 1971 by Van Nostrand Reinhold. The three goals of this edition were to shorten the text sufficiently, to present the scripture in language easily understood by the average layman, and to condense and simplify the content without omitting or changing any pertinent material. A dozen different translations were referenced, with an emphasis toward the American Standard Version and the Revised Standard Version. Hebrew texts were chosen over Greek and the Apocrypha was included.
An American Translation (AAT) was developed by Dr. William F. Beck and published in 1976 by Leader Publishing Company. It was the effort of one man to make the most accurate and simplified English Bible for all ages. Originally written for the Lutheran Church, it has undergone three revisions and contains a comparison of various passages with the Revised Standard Version and the New English Bible at the end.
Interlinear Bible (Greene) (IB), published in 1976 by Hendrickson Publishers, was the first side-by-side Hebrew/Greek and English Bible for English speaking students. It contains two English translations -- one located directly under each Hebrew or Greek word and a literal translation in a narrow column to the left -- along with a number above each Hebrew or Greek word correlating to Strong's Concordance and their respective lexicons, as well as the Hebrew and Greek alphabets. The Hebrew is based on Masoretic text and the Greek on the Received Text. (http://www.sovgracepub.com/)
Sacred Name Bible (SNB), also known as the "Restoration of Original Sacred Name Bible," is a revision of Rotherham's Emphasized Bible and was published in 1976 by Missionary Dispensary Bible Research. Its purpose is to restore and emphasize the true names of God and his Son, partly by capitalizing pronouns used for both. Based on Isaiah 52:6, the once unspeakable name of God (YHWH) has been returned to the Old Testament.
Reese Chronological Bible (RCB), published in 1980 by Bethany House and compiled over a period of twenty years by a college teacher of Bible-related subjects, arranges the King James Version into chronological order in an attempt to present the Bible as a history of chronological events.
Sacred Scriptures, Bethel Edition (SSBE), based on the American Standard Version of 1901, was published in 1981 by Assemblies of Yahweh in an attempt to restore the sacred name of God (YHWH) and Jesus (Yahshua) to their original locations in the Old and New Testaments. (http://www.assembliesofyahweh.com/)
New Century Version (NCV) was developed by a team from the World Bible Translation Center with fifty additional Bible scholars and translators, some of whom had worked on other popular translations, and published in 1987 by Word Publishing. Source texts used included the third edition of the United Bible Societies' Greek text, the latest edition of Biblia Hebraica and the Septuagint. To help make the language of this dynamic translation clear to modern readers, the vocabulary standards of the World Book Encyclopedia were used. Concepts were put into natural terms, such as modern measurements and geographical locations. Ancient customs were clarified in the text or footnotes. Rhetorical questions were stated according to the implied answers. Figures of speech and idiomatic expressions were translated according to their meanings. Obscure terms were clarified. Gender language was used to convey the intent of the writers as it pertained to all people. Images of ancient languages were translated into equivalent English images, where possible.
The Word Made Fresh (WMF) was written by Dr. Andy Edington, President Emeritus of Schreiner Junior College and High School in Texas, and published in 1988 by Eakin Press. Through his work with school students, prison inmates, and church groups, the author tried to create an interest in reading the Bible among the uninterested. With the presumption that the Bible can be considered as stale reading, Dr. Edington paraphrased the Bible and used modern familiar places, personal names, and humor.
Complete Jewish Bible (CJB), published by Jewish New Testament Publications in 1989, is a loosely literal Old and New Testament translation emphasizing Jewish tradition and theology. Based on the United Bible Societies' Greek New Testament, it uses Jewish terms and Semitic names rather than the Greek.
English Version for the Deaf (EVD), also known as the "Easy-to-Read Version," was published in 1989 by the Baker Book House. It is a dynamic translation designed for the deaf, children, and people who were learning English by expressing scripture simply and naturally.
Revised English Bible (REB), published in 1989 by the Oxford and Cambridge Universities Presses, is considered a radical, dynamic revision of the New English Bible of 1970. It was commissioned by the Joint Committee of the Churches, which had produced the New English Bible, and was based on the best available Old and New Testament texts in order to create a more modern translation that could be used both for liturgical purposes and by the laity. Complex or technical terms were avoided, gender-neutral references were used where applicable, Old English pronouns were replaced with modern English ones, some modern equivalents of ancient terms were used, and sub-headings have been provided.
God's Word (GW), also known as "Today's Bible Translation," was prepared by God's Word to the Nations Bible Society
and published in 1995 by World Publishing. It is printed in single column pages, follows standard punctuation and capitalization rules (no capitalized pronouns except I), uses natural grammar, and is gender-neutral where male references are often used in order to better apply to all readers.
The Scriptures (ISR) (SISR) was published in 1998 by the Institute for Scriptural Research in the Republic of South Africa. The purposes for this translation include the restoration of the true name of God the Almighty, to recognizably affirm the Hebraic roots of the Messianic belief, to restore the meaning of words that have been popularly used but do not accurately reflect the meaning of the original, and to be a literal translation. Wherever possible, Hebrew and Aramaic names have been used instead of their Greek translations. The Old Testament, referred to as the Pre-Messianic Scriptures, is based on the Masoretic Hebrew and Aramaic text, according to the 1937 edition of Kittel's Biblia Hebraica. The New Testament, referred to as the Messianic Scriptures, is based on the Textus Receptus, along with the Nestle-Aland and Shem Tob. (http://www.isr-messianic.org/)
"Many have undertaken to draw up an account of the things that have been fulfilled among us, just as they were handed down to us by those who from the first were eyewitnesses and servants of the word. Therefore, since I myself have carefully investigated everything from the beginning, it seemed good also to me to write an orderly account for you, most excellent Theophilus, so that you may know the certainty of the things you have been taught."
Be aware that some Bible translations have been developed with biased or questionable intentions and should be approached with caution. Some examples include:
Inspired Version (IV) is a revision of the King James Version by Joseph Smith, Jr., written between 1830-1833 and first published by the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints in 1867. Smith, although uneducated, claimed the revision to be a commandment of God and delivered through revelation. Though it was supposedly to correct what he claimed had been wrongfully removed from the Bible, it contained new material as additional revelation and had to undergo several corrections before being published again in 1944 by the Revised LDS Church.
New World Translation (NWT) of the Jehova's Witnesses, published by the Watchtower Bible and Tract Society of New York, was originally begun between 1950-1960. Starting in 1961, a series of revisions finally led to its final publication in 1984. It was translated from Hebrew, Aramaic, and Greek manuscripts by a committee from the Watchtower Bible and Tract Society who had no scholarly credentials or training in these languages. The New Testament has been carefully translated so that no verses depict Jesus as God.
"Jesus returned to Galilee in the power of the Spirit, and news about him spread through the whole countryside. He taught in their synagogues, and everyone praised him. He went to Nazareth, where he had been brought up, and on the Sabbath day he went into the synagogue, as was his custom. And he stood up to read. The scroll of the prophet Isaiah was handed it to him. Unrolling it, he found the place where it is written: 'The Spirit of the Lord is on me, because he has anointed me to preach good news to the poor. He has sent me to proclaim freedom for the prisoners and recovery of sight for the blind, to release the oppressed, to proclaim the year of the Lord's favor [Isaiah 61:1-2].' Then he rolled up the scroll, gave it back to the attendant and sat down. The eyes of everyone in the synagogue were fastened on him, and he began by saying to them, 'Today this scripture is fulfilled in your hearing.' "
Bibles in the free world may be purchased at just about any book store, whether Christian or secular. Some of the larger Bible publishers include Zondervan (http://www.zondervan.com/), Tyndale House (http://www.tyndale.com/), Thomas Nelson (http://www.thomasnelson.com/consumer/), Foundation Publications (http://www.foundationpublications.com/), Oxford University Press (http://www.oup.co.uk/), Cambridge University Press (http://uk.cambridge.org/), and HarperCollins (http://www.harpercollins.co.uk/). There are also many well-developed websites dedicated to providing whole Bibles online or search engines for finding passages from various translations. The following sites, although not an exhaustive list, should give you a good start to finding a trusted Bible translation.
1way2God.net - The Bible
Includes a quick introduction to the Christian Scriptures covering such questions as "What is the Bible?" and "What does 'Bible' mean?", introduces the reader to the format and content of the Bible and takes a quick look at the necessary approach to reading the Bible; An introduction to using the Bible, which familiarises the reader with the reference system of the Bible, as well as typical Book abbreviations and alternative representations of the reference system; The reliability of the Bible, a page providing basic answers to common misconceptions about the Bible, and finds that the New Testament is actually the most reliable document to come down to us from its time-period; Various translations of the Bible, which gives an introduction, history and quick review of many of the mainstream English translations of the Bible such as the KJV, RSV, NIV, NRSV, ESV, The Message, etc.; A list of places on the Internet to download a Bible or to view online Bibles, and suggests ways to get a physical copy of the Bible (always recommended), listing the types of factors you have to take into consideration when choosing a Bible and explaining why these are important.
2001 Translation - An American English Bible
"This Bible isn’t authorized by, nor does it represent the views of any religious group. Its content is the work of more than sixty online contributors and the dedicated efforts of a few translators and editors who have spent more than twenty-thousand hours (to date) in this enormous project, and whose only interest is in helping others to understand what the Bible truly says. Since it is in the public domain, this English Bible, its Notes, and its Commentaries that are original to this work may be copied, used, and distributed as you may wish."
American Bible Society
"We bring God's Word to cultural channels where the Bible lacks a strong voice and extend new reach within today's leading churches, inviting millions to reconsider and renew their engagement with God's Word. We are committed to bringing a renaissance for God's Word here in America by:
- Inviting millions to explore the Bible through digital and social media channels
- Mobilizing nationwide media
- Providing Bible resources to churches across the nation
- Developing new digital tools to unlock the hope of God's Word."
"Eashoa Msheekha (Jesus the Messiah) spoke Aramaic. Of course, this was two thousand years ago, the language has evolved and today it is like old English; it sounds very different. The Ancient Church of the East, that emerged out of Jerusalem at the end of the Apostolic Age, referred to it as Leeshana Ateeqah or the "old tongue." I call it Ancient Aramaic. It is still used in the liturgy of the Eastern Churches, although it is explained in their modern vernacular by the priests and deacons during church services. There are some clergy that know how to read it. It comes in many dialects of the Middle East and Africa, of the Eastern Churches, and from the Orthodox churches of some Eastern European countries. Nobody speaks this language anymore -- not the ancient form of it. Those who claim to speak Aramaic, are only speaking modern derivatives of the language, just as nobody speaks Old English or even Middle English anymore. Nobody speaks Koine Greek, Old Norse, or Old German, and so on. These languages have all evolved. And so today one also finds Hebrew and Aramaic spoken by millions of people in the Middle East, but these are modern versions of the language. They don't sound the same as Ancient Aramaic. The roots of many words are the same, however, and the old form can be learned. This I have done, so I can read the Scriptures and translate them faithfully. Actually, the Scriptures have preserved the Ancient Aramaic language, and the language has preserved the Scriptures." (Vic Alexander)
"A free service for reading and researching scripture online -- all in the language or translation of your choice! We provide advanced searching capabilities based on keywords or scripture references, and various tools to enhance your study of the Bible." (Gospel Communications International)
"We’re passionate about reading the Bible well so we can live it well. For over 200 years, we’ve helped millions of people access and experience God’s Word, so it can transform their lives. We translate and publish the Bible in dozens of languages, including the New International Version (NIV), the world’s most widely used contemporary English Bible. We believe everyone deserves a reliable, easy-to-read translation of Scripture in their heart language. We publish whole Bible translations, not just Scripture portions. We focus on languages with a million or more speakers so we can reach as many as possible with God’s Word. Right now, we’re working to make all our translations available in print, digital text, and digital audio — overcoming the barrier of illiteracy and the cost of printed Bibles. Read more about our Bible translation efforts."
Bible on the Web
"Welcome to CHRIST UNLIMITED MINISTRIES! In your search for information and knowledge the Lord has led you here. The Bible says, "A good man's steps are ordered by the Lord---" (Psalms 37:23). Like all seekers, we too, searched for answers to our many problems and found those answers in the person of Jesus Christ, the God of the Bible. The result of our quest for truth is found in the literature you will find at this web site, our Internet Chapel. Everyone who is a sincere seeker is welcome! We are trusting the Lord to minister to you no matter what your background might be. If you are young in the Lord or a long-time saint or one of His servants, we sincerely pray you will be blessed as you visit us." (Christ Unlimited Ministries)
"The Bible is a rich and fascinating book. However, some people are put off by its depth and complexity. While Christians should always be learning and growing, some have been content simply to lay their unanswered questions aside, without the growth that comes from the answers. Other people say the Bible has contradictions. While the Bible does have things that are difficult to understand, every alleged contradiction in the Bible has an explanation... I have attempted to hunt down every objection, difficulty, and alleged contradiction every non-Christian and Christian has asked. I tried to show some of the archaeological support for the Bible, discuss Bible and science issues, and give multiple answers in some places where Christian scholars disagree. I often look at things skeptically, but praise God Jesus died for skeptics, too. I also believe the Bible in the original manuscripts is the inerrant word of God." (by Christian Debater)
"From this website, you can: READ the entire Bible in many different translations; LOCATE any verse with an online concordance search; LOOK UP Scripture cross-references and commentaries; ACCESS the original Greek or Hebrew for any verse; COMPARE King James and Revised Versions side-by-side; LEARN about the fascinating history of the English Bible; DOWNLOAD the complete text of several Bibles via FTP; REVIEW the classic writings of historic Christianity; LISTEN to hundreds of hymns in Midi files; HEAR any passage of God's Word read aloud with Real Audio." (sponsored by GREATSITE.COM)
Blue Letter Bible
"Our mission is to facilitate in-depth study of God's Word through an on-line interactive reference library continuously updated from the teachings and commentaries of selected pastors and teachers who hold to the conservative, historical Christian faith. We desire to operate the Blue Letter Bible as a ministry. This is a zero revenue project. There will be no charge for any services, nor are there any banner ads on the website to generate revenue. Development and programming labor, hardware and webspace have been provided by our sponsor, Sowing Circle, a non-profit Bible-centered ministry committed to serving Jesus Christ."
Christian Bible Studies
Bible search and links to other reference sources, including online Bibles, concordances, dictionaries, lexicons, and commentaries; from Christianity Today International.
"The Only OPEN Bible Translation. The World's Most Accurate Bible Translation.
This translation has been open for revision by anyone since 1998, and this is the current result."
Crosswalk.com -- Bible Study Tools
"Crosswalk.com's Bible Study Tools" are designed to facilitate in-depth study and exploration of God's Word. As the largest resource of its kind on the Internet, this powerful free resource embodies our corporate mission: to equip people to grow in their faith and apply it practically in their lives."
Confidence in the Word
"Yet, as the result of research by two respected Christian organisations, confirmed by his own observations, the author of this website has become intensely aware that, apart from public worship, many sincere believers neither read the Bible nor hear it read, or if they do so at all, then it is only on rare occasions.
This has served to convince the author that the underlying reason for the lack of personal Bible reading in the UK is that many Christians have suffered a fundamental loss of confidence, not only in the Bible itself, but also in their God-given ability - and right - to read and understand the Scriptures for themselves. He has therefore compiled Confidence in the Word as a modest contribution towards restoring and enhancing much-needed assurance among believers that:- The Bible is the unique, authentic, authoritative and completely reliable Word of God. By considering some of the things the Bible says about itself, we highlight some of its distinguishing features. We also look at how our Lord Jesus Christ spoke about and used the Scriptures... - and - The Bible can be readily understood and applied to daily life by every Christian. Starting with an account of how a Bristol lady was healed of a debilitating illness by copying parts of the Bible by hand, we invite you to experience how the Scriptures can "speak" to you today." (by Michael Kemp)
"The World English Bible (WEB) is a Public Domain (no copyright) Modern English translation of the Holy Bible, based on the American Standard Version of the Holy Bible first published in 1901, the Biblia Hebraica Stutgartensa Old Testament, and the Greek Majority Text New Testament. It is in draft form, and currently being edited for accuracy and readability. The New Testament, Psalms, and Proverbs are close to how they will read when they are finished, but most of the Old Testament still contains some archaic grammar that will be revised." (Rainbow Missions, Inc.)
"The year 2000 marks the 600th anniversary of the birth of Johann Gutenberg, the inventor of letterpress printing. He has recently been named "Man of the Millenium", a title well-deserved. To celebrate this anniversary, the State and University Library of Lower Saxony is presenting its priceless vellum Gutenberg Bible along with many other examples of European letterpress printing in an exhibition in the Pauliner Kirche (the church of the former Dominican monastery that until 1811 served as the University Chapel) between 23 June and 29 October, 2000. Prior to the opening of this exhibition the Bible, which was printed in 1454, is made available to a broad international public on the Internet and as a CD-ROM. All 1282 pages of the two volumes of the Bible were scanned in at high resolution and processed for online presentation. This allows the public - in a digital "hands-on" effect - on CD 1 direct access to a priceless work which can normally only be stored in vaults or only a few pages can be shown during an exhibition."
King James Bible Online
"The King James Version is a translation named after King James I of England, who first commissioned the new English Bible translation in 1604 A.D. and later completed in 1611 A.D. King James 'authorized' the new translation to be read in churches in England and beyond. Later known as the 'Authorized Version' in 1814, the King James Version became a standard among English-speaking Christians. The King James Version is considered one of the most accurate English translations in existance today. A skilled committee of 54 translators worked for 7 years to carefully complete the King James translation. The translation is most noted for its poetic feel - prose that seems to flow with a certain rhythmic quality. The book is often cited as the most published book in world history with a significant influence on literature and culture in the last few centuries. It is estimated that more than 1 billion copies of the King James Version have been published. The King James Version has had a few rounds of edits, mostly to keep up with changes in the English language itself. The English from the original 1611 version is noticeably different than the newer 1769 version. People who are unfamiliar with the English language in the Elizabethan and Jacobean era can easily mistake the 1611 King James Version writing style for spelling errors. The same can be said for other writings of that era as well, for example Beowulf. It is widely recognized that the King James Version has made a significant impact on the English language and it continues to leave impressions on people and culture, as one of the most published books in world history."
"What you have in your hands-or on your computer monitor, laptop, or handheld-represents a new approach to Bible translation and a fresh approach to ministry for the new millennium. The NET Bible was created with the Internet in mind. The decision to produce for the first time large quantities of Bibles on Gutenberg's improved press in 1454-1455 sparked a revolution and provided a dramatic increase in the availability of Bibles and biblical study materials in many languages, but over five centuries later many people throughout the world cannot access Bibles and biblical study materials because of their cost and because some governments attempt to prevent their citizens from ever encountering the Bible. The primary goal of the NET Bible project was to leverage the Internet to meet these two critical needs. The Internet represents the single best opportunity for ministry in history because electronic distribution via the Internet allows free delivery of unlimited numbers of Bibles and unlimited amounts of biblical study materials to anyone worldwide who could otherwise not afford them or access them-for zero incremental cost... The NET Bible was created to be the first major modern English translation available free on the Internet for download and use in Bible studies so that the opportunities provided by the Internet could be maximized." (from the Biblical Studies Foundation)
"Welcome to The New Testament Gateway, the directory of academic internet resources on the New Testament, hosted by Logos Bible Software and edited by Mark Goodacre. Browse or search annotated links on everything connected with the academic study of the New Testament and Christian Origins."
"Taking the Word of God to the world via the internet. Placing on the world wide web the entire resources of Scripture in all language translations." (by M.Markham)
Seek God Ministries - Bible Study Helps and Resources
"God has given the church the printing press, radio, television, and now the Internet as communication tools to spread the gospel and make disciples of Jesus. The Internet combines the best of all these technologies and is the most cost effective communication tool that God has ever given the church. The Lord is already using the Seek God web to do these things but the impact thus far is just a sample of what can be accomplished with more effort and more resources."
The SWORD Project
"The SWORD Project is the CrossWire Bible Society's free Bible software project. Its purpose is to create cross-platform open-source tools-- covered by the GNU General Public License -- that allow programmers and Bible societies to write new Bible software more quickly and easily. We also create Bible study software for all readers, students, scholars, and translators of the Bible, and have a growing collection of over 200 texts in over 50 languages."
The Unbound Bible
"The Unbound Bible is a collection of searchable Bibles consisting of: 10 English versions including the NASB; Greek and Hebrew Versions (the original Bible languages); 4 ancient versions; 42 versions in other languages. The Unbound Bible was created with one purpose in mind: to provide the Bible to the nations of the world. The word of God is not bound by the hands of man, and realizing this, we wish to make it available to the people of the world in their own language." (Biola University)
A View of the Versions
"Examining the Positive & Negative Qualities Of Various Versions & Translations
Of God's Holy Scriptures." (Al Maxey)
"So Jeremiah called Baruch son of Neriah, and while Jeremiah dictated all the words the LORD had spoken to him, Baruch wrote them on the scroll. Then Jeremiah told Baruch, 'I am restricted; I cannot go to the LORD's temple. So you go to the house of the LORD on a day of fasting and read to the people from the scroll the words of the LORD that you wrote as I dictated. Read them all to the people of Judah who come in from their towns. Perhaps they will bring their petition before the LORD, and each will turn from his wicked ways, for the anger and wrath pronounced against this people by the LORD are great.' "
References sources: Bible History Online - Bible Versions (http://www.bible-history.com/bhodb/links.cfm?cat=13&sub=139); GREATSITE.COM - English Bible History (http://www.greatsite.com/timeline-english-bible-history/index.html); Innvista - Culture > Religion > Bible > Versions > Old and New Testaments (http://www.innvista.com/culture/religion/bible/versions/onindex.htm); Tyndale House, Cambridge UK, Residential Centre for Biblical Studies (http://www.tyndale.cam.ac.uk/Scriptures/)